Argonne National Laboratory
Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors
Nuclear Science and Engineering Division at Argonne
U.S. Department of Energy

IAEA/USA Interregional course on
Preparations to Ship Spent Nuclear Fuel (1997)

Physical Security Plan for Sea Shipment of
IAEA Category II Foreign Spent Research Reactor Fuel

PDF version available
DOWNLOAD full paper in PDF format.

Mr. Edward Wonder
Vice President, International Div.
Integrated Resources Group, Inc.
380 Maple Ave, West, Suite 101
Vienna, VA 22180
Tel.: +1-703-319-8768
Fax: +1-703-319-8769

IAEA/USA Interregional Training Course

Technical and Administrative Preparations Required for Shipment of Research Reactor Spent Fuel to its Country of Origin

13-24 January 1997
Argonne, IL

Physical Security Plan for Sea Shipment of
IAEA Category II Foreign Spent Research Reactor Fuel

Safeguards and Security Team (EM-62)
Office of Environmental Management
U. S. Department of Energy
January 1997

Draft Physical Security Plan
for Sea Shipment of Category II Quantities
  • Preparation an EM-62 initiative following 9/96 shipments

  • Security Plan a contractual requirement in RFP for DOE shipping contractor

  • DOE contractor ships fuel from developing countries calendar 1997

Sierra Club vs James D. Watkins, Secretary of
U.S. Department of Energy,
(December 9, 1991)
  • Federal Court found inadequate a DOE Environmental Assessment re: impact of shipping Taiwanese spent fuel to Savannah River

  • Department has to consider possibility of human intervention and attendant risks of low probability event

    - even though police might escort shipments, risk of low probability event can't be ignored

Infcirc/225/Rev. 3
  • Is material self-protecting?

    - 100 rads/hr. at one meter unshielded
    - if not, treat as unirradiated, not self-protecting

  • Cat I unirradiated 5 kg U-235 or more

  • Cat II unirradiated

    - less than 5 kg but more than 1 kg if enrichment is 20% or higher
    - 10 kg U-235 or more if enrichment is 10% - 20%

  • Reduce Cat I or II quantity one category level if self-protecting

DOE Order 5633.3B
Control & Accountability of Nuclear Material
  • Moderately irradiated >15r/hr.

    - Category II Attractiveness Level D U-235>50 kg.
    - Category III Attractiveness Level D U-235>8<50 kg.

  • Highly irradiated>100r

    - Reportable Quantities

Fuel Categorization Critical
  • Security for Category I quantity significantly higher than for IAEA Category II or lower

  • If Category II under DOE Order 5633.3B, protect as if Category I

Stages of Transport
  • Reactor to Port of Embarkation

  • Port of Embarkation

  • At Sea

  • U.S. Territorial Limits to Charleston or Concord NWS

  • U.S. Port to Savannah River or Idaho

Scope of Category II Plan
  • Focus from reactor to U.S. port

  • Host country regulations (if any) apply from reactor to port of embarkation

    - Do national regulations incorporate Infcirc/225/Rev.3?

  • IAEA Guidelines on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (Infcirc/225/Rev. 3) while at sea

    - satisfy requirements of Convention on Physical Protection of Nuclear Material (Infcirc/274/Rev. 1)

  • 10 CFR 73.37 for spent fuel applies to NRC licensee while in US. territorial waters

  • DOE Order 5632.1C-1, Protection & Control of Safeguards and Security Interests, requirements for sea shipment of irradiated fuel

Clarify Who Does What
  • Designation of U.S. and shipper country government POCs under Physical Security Convention

  • Designation of emergency response agency in host country and while at sea

  • Shipper 24-hour communications center

  • Cognizant DOE operations center

Draft Category II Plan
  • Shipper fills in summary matrix and plan text on how shipper fulfills all applicable elements of Infcirc/225/Rev. 3

  • Several stages

    - how fuel gets to exit port
    - security at exit port
    - security at sea
    - entry into US territorial waters

Information Which Plan Will Generate
  • Security capability for transport to port

    - route, stop-overs, hand-overs, etc.
    - guard and response force
    - who is in charge
    - with whom is security plan on file
    - load vehicle check, locks and seals

  • At sea

    - who has advance knowledge of route
    - escort(s)
    - communications, monitoring cargo, emergency response

  • At receiving Port

    - hand-over arrangements

Some Key Issues
  • Current threat assessment of the route and its alternatives

  • How the security plan addresses the assessed threat

  • Who is responsible for doing what

    - capability to carry out the responsibility

  • Use of "need to know" principle and tight information security to protect access to sensitive route and security information

  • Language barrier

Need for:
  • Early communications with DOE on security

  • Planning for security
DOE ready to help

POC EM Safeguards and Security Team

Tel.: (301) 903-9977
Fax : (301) 903-9980

2016 RERTR Meeting

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2015 RERTR Meeting

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For more information visit RERTR-2015.

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Last modified on July 29, 2008 11:34 +0200